This volume asks a fundamental question: What is education? While there can be no one answer, the contributors provide a clear understanding of the current state of education in India, which stands at a crossroads. Education is a fundamental right for the empowerment of every citizen and the holistic development of the human personality. It is not only about literacy and grades, nor merely about knowledge creation. A common theme that runs through the papers is the recognition that education has to teach us to think and question. If this is the imperative, education must take cognisance of disparities in incomes and social status, the heterogeneity of culture, religion, language and lived reality. Most importantly, however, is the crucial need for value education, as brought out in the Foreword. The 20th century has seen major developments in science and technology, for instance. On the other hand, it has been lethal and destructive. It is the moment for us to draw on our rich heritage and promote intercultural education. This volume is essential reading for those in the field of education, of course, but also public policy and the non-government sector.